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Cigarette smoking, wound healing, and face-lift

      Cigarette smoking is one of the major health problems in Western countries and is the single most preventable cause of death and disease in the United States.
      • McGinnis J.M.
      • Foege W.H.
      Actual causes of death in the United States.
      More than 30% of cancer-related deaths are due to tobacco use.

      Costanza ME, Li FP, Greene HL, et al. In: Osteen RT, editor. Cancer Manual. 8th ed. Boston: American Cancer Society, Massachusetts Division, 1990;:45.

      Worldwide, tobacco is estimated to be responsible for approximately 3 million deaths yearly.
      • Peto R.
      • Lopez A.D.
      • Borehain J.
      • et al.
      Mortality from tobacco in developed countries Indirect estimation from national statistics.
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