Research Article| Volume 40, ISSUE 6, P651-664, November 2022

Download started.


Ethnomedicine survey on folk dermatology in Transylvania, Romania


      From the beginning of recorded history through the present day, dermatologic disorders have been treated with ethnomedicine remedies. We present the ethnodermatologic practices in Transylvania, Romania. We conducted ethnomedicine surveys in 35 villages in Transylvania (2007-2019). The 650 people interviewed were questioned about the treatment of dermatologic disorders by drugs derived from plant, animal, human, or other origins. Collected data were compared to earlier records of the regions and other European countries, completed with relevant pharmacologic studies of some plants. A total of 180 drugs were documented for 45 skin problems, including 112 plants, 1 fungus, 19 animals, 5 humans, and 43 other materials used in 11 preparation forms. Among these, 144 drugs were mentioned in humans, 10 in veterinary medicines, and 26 included in both therapies with overlapping human/animal (eg, Petroselinum crispum) and specific uses (eg, Daphne mezereum, Scrophularia nodosa). Compared to data from other countries, the local use of 32 plants and various animals and minerals was described only in the study area. The present study demonstrates that ethnomedicine practices are a valuable source of knowledge for skin diseases and highlight the relevance of fieldwork in the selected regions of Transylvania.

      Graphical abstract

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Clinics in Dermatology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Hay RJ
        • Johns NE
        • Williams HC
        • et al.
        The global burden of skin disease in 2010: an analysis of the prevalence and impact of skin conditions.
        J Invest Dermatol. 2014; 134: 1527-1534
        • Soukand R
        • Mattila G
        • Kolosova V
        • et al.
        Inventing a herbal tradition: the complex roots of the current popularity of Epilobium angustifolium in Eastern Europe.
        J Ethnopharmacol. 2020; 247112254
        • Kalle R
        • Kass M.
        Local practice of cattle farming and ethnoveterinary medicine in Estonia: Case study of Saaremaa and Muhumaa.
        in: McGaw L Abdalla MA Ethnoveterinary Medicine. Springer, Berlin, Germany2020: 345-374
        • Leporatti ML
        • Ivancheva S.
        Preliminary comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in the traditional medicine of Bulgaria and Italy.
        J Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 87: 123-142
        • Pieroni A
        • Quave C
        • Nebel S
        • et al.
        Ethnopharmacy of the ethnic Albanians (Arbereshe) of northern Basilicata, Italy.
        Fitoterapia. 2002; 73: 217-241
        • Pieroni A
        • Quave CL
        • Santoro RF.
        Folk pharmaceutical knowledge in the territory of the Dolomiti Lucane, inland southern Italy.
        J Ethnopharmacol. 2004; 95: 373-384
        • Pieroni A
        • Quave CL
        • Villanelli ML
        • et al.
        Ethnopharmacognostic survey on the natural ingredients used in folk cosmetics, cosmeceuticals, and remedies for healing skin diseases in the inland Marches, Central-Eastern Italy.
        J Ethnopharmacol. 2004; 91: 331-344
        • Pieroni A
        • Rexhepi B
        • Nedelcheva A
        • et al.
        One century later: the folk botanical knowledge of the last remaining Albanians of the upper Reka Valley, Mount Korab, Western Macedonia.
        J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013; 9: 22
        • Guarrera PM
        • Salerno G
        • Caneva G.
        Folk phytotherapeutical plants from Maratea area (Basilicata, Italy).
        J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 99: 367-378
        • Passalacqua NG
        • Guarrera PM
        • De Fine G.
        Contribution to the knowledge of the folk plant medicine in Calabria region (Southern Italy).
        Fitoterapia. 2007; 78: 52-68
        • De Natale A
        • Pezzatti GB
        • Pollio A.
        Extending the temporal context of ethnobotanical databases: the case study of the Campania region (southern Italy).
        J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2009; 5: 7
        • Gonzalez JA
        • Garcia-Barriuso M
        • Amich F.
        Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants traditionally used in the Arribes del Duero, western Spain.
        J Ethnopharmacol. 2010; 131: 343-355
        • Saric-Kundalic B
        • Dobes C
        • Klatte-Asselmeyer V
        • et al.
        Ethnobotanical study on medicinal use of wild and cultivated plants in middle, south and west Bosnia and Herzegovina.
        J Ethnopharmacol. 2010; 131: 33-55
        • Saric-Kundalic B
        • Dobes C
        • Klatte-Asselmeyer V
        • et al.
        Ethnobotanical survey of traditionally used plants in human therapy of east, north, and north-east Bosnia and Herzegovina.
        J Ethnopharmacol. 2011; 133: 1051-1076
        • Di Novella R
        • Di Novella N
        • De Martino L
        • et al.
        Traditional plant use in the National Park of Cilento and Vallo di Diano, Campania, Southern, Italy.
        J Ethnopharmacol. 2013; 145: 328-342
        • Soukand R
        • Kalle R.
        Where does the border lie: locally grown plants used for making tea for recreation and/or healing, 1970s-1990s Estonia.
        J Ethnopharmacol. 2013; 150: 162-174
        • Vitalini S
        • Iriti M
        • Puricelli C
        • et al.
        Traditional knowledge on medicinal and food plants used in Val San Giacomo (Sondrio, Italy)—an alpine ethnobotanical study.
        J Ethnopharmacol. 2013; 145: 517-529
        • Zlatkovic BK
        • Bogosavljevic SS
        • Radivojevic AR
        • et al.
        Traditional use of the native medicinal plant resource of Mt. Rtanj (Eastern Serbia): ethnobotanical evaluation and comparison.
        J Ethnopharmacol. 2014; 151: 704-713
        • Soukand R
        • Pieroni A.
        The importance of a border: medical, veterinary, and wild food ethnobotany of the Hutsuls living on the Romanian and Ukrainian sides of Bukovina.
        J Ethnopharmacol. 2016; 185: 17-40
        • Kosić IV
        • Juračak J
        • Łuczaj Ł.
        Using Ellenberg-Pignatti values to estimate habitat preferences of wild food and medicinal plants: an example from northeastern Istria (Croatia).
        J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2017; 13: 31
        • Kujawska M
        • Klepacki P
        • Łucza Ł.
        Fischer's Plants in folk beliefs and customs: a previously unknown contribution to the ethnobotany of the Polish-Lithuanian-Belarusian borderland.
        J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2017; 13: 20
        • Lumpert M
        • Kreft S.
        Folk use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci, Slovenia.
        J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2017; 13: 16
        • Mayer M
        • Zbinden M
        • Vogl CR
        • et al.
        Swiss ethnoveterinary knowledge on medicinal plants: a within-country comparison of Italian speaking regions with north-western German-speaking regions.
        J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2017; 13: 1
        • Pranskuniene Z
        • Dauliute R
        • Pranskunas A
        • et al.
        Ethnopharmaceutical knowledge in Samogitia region of Lithuania: where old traditions overlap with modern medicine.
        J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2018; 14: 70
        • Mautone M
        • De Martino L
        • De Feo V.
        Ethnobotanical research in Cava de' Tirreni area, Southern Italy.
        J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2019; 15: 50
        • Rivera D
        • Verde A
        • Fajardo J
        • et al.
        Ethnopharmacology in the Upper Guadiana River area (Castile-La Mancha, Spain).
        J Ethnopharmacol. 2019; 241111968
        • Vinagre C
        • Vinagre S
        • Carrilho E.
        The use of medicinal plants by the population from the Protected Landscape of "Serra de Montejunto," Portugal.
        J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2019; 15: 30
        • Mustafa B
        • Hajdari A
        • Pulaj B
        • et al.
        Medical and food ethnobotany among Albanians and Serbs living in the Shtërpcë/Štrpce area, South Kosovo.
        J Herb Med. 2020; 22100344
        • Papageorgiou D
        • Bebeli PJ
        • Panitsa M
        • et al.
        Local knowledge about sustainable harvesting and availability of wild medicinal plant species in Lemnos island, Greece.
        J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2020; 16: 36
        • Mantle D
        • Gok MA
        • Lennard TW.
        Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders.
        Adverse drug reactions and toxicological reviews. 2001; 20: 89-103
        • Szabó LG.
        Népi gyógynövény-ismeret Kalotaszegen és Gyimesvölgyében (Ethnobotanical data in Ţara Călatei and Ghimeș).
        Turán. 2002; 32: 39-52
        • Kovács JA.
        Székelykeresztúr vidékének növényzeti öröksége [Heritage of the Flora of Cristuru Secuiesc] (in Hungarian).
        Tortoma Kiadó, Barót, Romania2019
        • Lencsés G.
        Ars Medica.
        Handwritten book, Targu Mures, Romania2000 (1577)
        • Pelczéder K
        Lencsés György “Orvosi könyv (Ars medica)” című munkája növényneveinek a vizsgálata[Terminological Study of Plants in Ars Medica] (in Hungarian).
        Nemzetközi Magyarságtudományi Társaság, Debrecen-Budapest, Hungary2007
      1. Melius JP. Herbarium, Cluj Napoca, Romania, Press of Gáspárné Heltai, 1578.

      2. Pápai PF. Pax Corporis, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 1960.

        • Vajkai A.
        Népi orvoslás a Borsavölgyében [Ethnomedicine in Borsa Valley] ((in Hungarian).
        Erdélyi Tudományos Intézet, Cluj-Napoca1943
        • Borza A
        Dictionar etnobotanic [Ethnobotanical Dictionary] (in Romanian).
        Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste Romania, Bucharest1968
        • Bosnyák S.
        Adalékok a moldvai csángók népi orvoslásához [Ethnomedicinal data of the Csángós in Moldova] (in Hungarian).
        Orvostört Közl. 1973; : 279-298
        • Rácz G
        • Füzi J.
        Kovászna megye gyógynövényei [Medicinal Plants in Covasna County] (in Hungarian).
        Árkosi Agronómusok Háza, Sfântu Gheorghe, Romania1973
        • Kóczián G
        • Pintér I
        • Gál M
        • et al.
        Etnobotanikai adatok Gyimesvölgyéből [Ethnobotanical data of the Ghimeș valley] (in Hungarian).
        Bot Közl. 1976; 63: 29-35
        • Kóczián G
        • Pintér I
        • Szabó LG.
        Adatok a gyimesi csángók népi gyógyászatához [Ethnobotanical data of the Csángós in Ghimeș] (in Hungarian).
        Gyógyszerészet. 1975; 19: 226-230
        • Kóczián G
        • Szabó I
        • G SL
        Etnobotanikai adatok Kalotaszegről [Ethnobotanical data in Ţara Călatei] (in Hungarian).
        Bot Közl. 1977; 64: 23-29
        • Szabó TA
        • Péntek J
        Ezerjófű. Etnobotanikai útmutató [Centaury. Ethnobotanical Guide] (in Hungarian).
        Kriterion, Bucharest, Romania1976
        • Péntek J
        • Szabó TA.
        Egy háromszéki falu népi növényismerete [Ethnobotanical study in a village in Trei Scaune] (in Hungarian).
        Ethnographia. 1976; 87: 203-225
        • Péntek J
        • Szabó TA.
        Ember és növényvilág. Kalotaszeg növényzete és népi növényismerete [People and Plants: Vegetation and Rural Botanical Knowledge in Ţara Călatei] (in Hungarian).
        Kriterion, Bucharest, Romania1985
        • Butura V
        Encilopedie de etnobotanică românească [Dictionary of the Romanian Ethnobotany] (in Romanian).
        Editura Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică, Bucharest, Romania1979
        • Miklóssy VV.
        Csíki népi sebtapaszok [Traditional plasters in Ciuc] (in Hungarian).
        Népism Dolg. 1980; : 60-63
        • Keszeg V.
        A mezőségi Detrehemtelep népi gyógyászata [Ethnomedicine in Detrehemtelep] (in Hungarian).
        Népism Dolg. 1981; : 97-117
        • Rab J.
        Újabb népgyógyászati adatok Gyimesből [New ethnomedicinal data in Ghimeș] (in Hungarian).
        Gyógyszerészet. 1982; 26: 325-333
        • Rab J.
        Népi növényismeret a Gyergyói-medencében [Ethnobotany in Gheorgheni] (in Hungarian).
        Pallas Akadémia, Miercurea Ciuc2001
        • Rab J
        • Tankó P
        • Tankó M.
        Növényismeretünk gazdag és pontos (Gyergyó és Gyimes) [Ethnobotany in Gheorgheni and Ghimeș] (in Hungarian).
        Falvak Dolgozó Népe. 1980; 36: 4
        • Rab J
        • Tankó P
        • Tankó M
        Népi növényismeret Gyimesbükkön [Ethnobotany in Ghimeş-Făget] (in Hungarian).
        Népism Dolg. 1981; : 23-38
        • Halászné ZK.
        Adatok a moldvai magyarok gyógynövény-használatához [Ethnobotanical data of the Hungarians in Moldova] (in Hungarian).
        Gyógyszerészet. 1981; 25: 361-367
        • Halászné ZK.
        Sebkezelés a moldvai és a gyimesi magyaroknál napjainkban és Gelencén a XVIII. században [Treatment of wounds in Ghimeș nowadays and in Gelence in the 18th century] (in Hungarian).
        in: Halász P Studies Dedicated to the Memory of Pál Domokos. Lakatos Demeter Egyesület, Budapest, Hungary1993: 109-116
        • Vasas S
        Népi gyógyászat, kalotaszegi gyűjtés [Ethnomedicinal Study in Ţara Călatei] (in Hungarian).
        Kriterion, Bucharest, Romania1985
        • Zillmann J
        Népi gyógyászat Havadon [Ethnomedicine in Neaua] (in Hungarian).
        Népr Látóhatár. 1997; 1: 124-148
        • Gub J.
        Adatok a Nagy-Homoród és a Nagy-Küküllő közötti terület népi növényismeretéhez [Ethnobotanical data of the Nagy-Homoród and Nagy-Küküllő] (in Hungarian).
        Néprajzi Látóhatár. 1993; 1-2: 95-110
        • Gub J.
        Erdő-mező növényei a Sóvidéken [Plants in Field and Forest in Sóvidék] (in Hungarian).
        Hazanéző könyvek, Firtos Művelődési Egylet, Corund, Romania1996
        • Gub J.
        Népi növényismeret a Nagy-Homoród mentén [Ethnobotanical Data Along the Nagy-Homoród] (in Hungarian).
        Pro-Print Könyvkiadó, Miercurea Ciuc, Romania2000: 47-55
        • Gub J
        Kertek, mezők termesztett növényei a Sóvidéken [Cultivated Plants in Fields and Gardens in Sóvidék] (in Hungarian).
        Erdélyi Gondolat, Odorheiu Secuiesc, Romania2001
        • Gub J.
        Természetismeret és néphagyomány a székely Sóvidéken [Traditions and Knowledge in Sóvidék] (in Hungarian).
        Erdélyi Gondolat, Odorheiu Secuiesc, Romania2003
      3. Csoma G. Varázslások és gyógyítások a moldvai csángó magyaroknál [Witchcraft and Healings of the Csángós in Moldova]. Pomáz: Kráter Mühely Egyesület; 2000.

        • Antalné TM.
        Gyimes-völgyi népi gyógyászat [Ethnomedicine in the Ghimeș] (in Hungarian).
        Európa Folklór Intézet, L’Harmattan, Budapest, Hungary2003
        • Frendl K.
        Analógiás gondolkodást tükröző tárgyak székely és csángó települések humán és állatorvoslásában (Objects of analogic thought in the Székely and Csángó ethnoveterinary) (in Hungarian).
        L’Harmattan–PTE Néprajz-Kulturális Antropológia Tanszék, Budapest, Hungary2008: 318-340
        • Grynaeus T
        • Szabó LG.
        A bukovinai hadikfalvi székelyek növényei [Plants of the Széklers in Dorneşti in Bucovina] (in Hungarian).
        Gyógyszerészet. 2002; 46: 251-259
        • Sebestyén A
        Gyógyító praktikák. Néprajzi gyűjtés a bukovinai székelyeknél [Healing Practices. Ethnographical Study Among the Széklers in Bucovina] (in Hungarian).
        Sebestyén Ádám Székely Társulat, Kakasd, Hungary2008
        • Balázs D.
        A népi gyógyítás és kutatás néhány kérdése Siklód példáján [Ethnomedicinal study in Șiclod] (in Hungarian).
        J Hist Cult Sci Med. 2010; 1: 90-95
        • Halász P.
        Növények a moldvai magyarok hagyományában és mindennapjaiban [Plants in the Tradition and Everyday Life of the Hungarians in Moldova] (in Hungarian).
        General Press, Budapest, Hungary2010
        • Kosz Z.
        Népi gyógyítás Csíkrákoson [Ethnomedicine in Racu] (in Hungarian).
        Mentor Kiadó, Targu Mureș, Romania2010
        • Babai D.
        Hegyvidéki növényzet botanikai és etnoökológiai szempontú vizsgálata Gyimesben (Keleti-Kárpátok, Románia) [Botanical and Ethnoecological Study of Highland Flora in Ghimeș, Romania] (in Hungarian).
        University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary2013
        • Babai D
        • Molnár Á
        • Molnár Z.
        “Ahogy gondozza, úgy veszi hasznát” – Hagyományos ökológiai tudás és gazdálkodás Gyimesben [Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Land Use in Gyimes, Eastern Carpathians] (in Hungarian).
        MTA Bölcsészettudományi Kutatóközpont Néprajztudományi Intézet, MTA Ökológiai Kutatóközpont Ökológiai és Botanikai Intézet, Budapest, Vácrátót, Hungary2014
        • Pieroni A
        • Nedelcheva A
        • Dogan Y.
        Local knowledge of medicinal plants and wild food plants among Tatars and Romanians in Dobruja (South-East Romania).
        Genet Resour Crop Ev. 2014; 62: 605-620
        • Papp N
        • Birkás-Frendl K
        • Bencsik T
        • et al.
        Survey of traditional beliefs in the Hungarian Csángó and Székely ethnomedicine in Transylvania, Romania.
        Rev Bras Farmacogn. 2014; : 24
        • Mattalia G
        • Stryamets N
        • Pieroni A
        • et al.
        Knowledge transmission patterns at the border: ethnobotany of Hutsuls living in the Carpathian Mountains of Bukovina (SW Ukraine and NE Romania).
        J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2020; 16: 41
        • Petran M
        • Dragos D
        • Gilca M.
        Historical ethnobotanical review of medicinal plants used to treat children diseases in Romania (1860s-1970s).
        J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2020; 16: 15
        • Gilca M
        • Tiplica GS
        • Salavastru CM.
        Traditional and ethnobotanical dermatology practices in Romania and other Eastern European countries.
        Clin Dermatol. 2018; 36: 338-352
        • Idu M
        • Erhabor JO
        • Timothy O
        • et al.
        Ethnodermatological study among the Itsekiri people of Warri South Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria.
        J Plant Dev Sci. 2011; 3: 67-73
        • Morrone A
        • Franco G
        Cooperazione Italiana allo Sviluppo/Istituto San Gallicano, Roma, Italy2007
        • Bharathajothi P
        • Jegatheesan M.
        Ethnodermatological plants used by the Paliyar tribals of Western Ghats, Puliangudi, Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu, India.
        Int J Curr Res. 2017; 9: 53436-53438
        • Dlova NCN.
        Ethnic Skin and Hair Disorders in Kwazulu-Natal: A Study of the Spectrum of Ethnic Skin and Hair Disorders, and the Composition and Use of Skin-Lightening Preparations, Traditional Cosmetics, and Sunscreen.
        University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa2014
        • Khan SS
        • Chaghtai SA.
        Ethnobotanical study of some plants used for curing skin afflictions.
        Anc Sci Life. 1982; 1: 236-238
        • Berde K.
        A magyar nép dermatológiája [Hungarian Ethnodermatology] (in Hungarian).
        A Magyar Orvosi Könyvkiadó Társulat Kiadása, Budapest, Hungary1940
        • Kocsis M
        Népi gyógyászat Szitáson [Ethnomedicine in Nicoreşti] (in Hungarian).
        Mentor, Targu Mureș, Romania2010
      4. International Society of Ethnobiology (ISE). The Code of Ethics of the International Society of Ethnobiology. Online: (Jan 2021)

      5. International Classification of Diseases, 11th revision, (ICD-11) 2021. Online: (Jan 2021).

      6. The Plant List. A working list of all plant species. 2013. Online: (Jan 2021)

      7. GBIF. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 2001. Online: (Jan 2021)

      8. Saeidnia S, Gohari A, Mokhber-Dezfuli N, et al. A review on phytochemistry and medicinal properties of the genus Achillea. Daru. 2011;19:173-186.

        • Hashempur MH
        • Khademi F
        • Rahmanifard M
        • et al.
        An evidence-based study on medicinal plants for hemorrhoids in medieval Persia.
        J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2017; 22: 969-981
        • Jalali FSS
        • Tajik H
        • Tehrani A.
        Experimental evaluation of repair process of burn wound treated with aqueous extract of Achillea millefolium on animal model: clinical and histopathological study.
        J Anim Vet Adv. 2007; 6: 1357-1361
        • Allahverdi TD
        • Allahverdi E
        • Kilicle PA
        • et al.
        Investigation of the effects of Achillea millefolium extract in diabetic rats with second-degree burns.
        Pak J Pharm Sci. 2018; 31: 973-978
        • Hajhashemi M
        • Ghanbari Z
        • Movahedi M
        • et al.
        The effect of Achillea millefolium and Hypericum perforatum ointments on episiotomy wound healing in primiparous women.
        J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2018; 31: 63-69
        • Šircelj H
        • Mikulič-Petkovšek M
        • Batič F.
        Antioxidants in spring leaves of Oxalis acetosella L.
        Food Chem. 2010; 123: 351-357
        • Li CT
        • Liu YP
        • He F-C
        • et al.
        In vitro antioxidant activities of Tussilago farfara, a new record species to Changbai Mountain.
        Chin J Nat Med. 2012; 10: 260-262
        • Csedő K.
        Hargita megye gyógy- és fűszernövényei [Medicinal Plants in Harghita County] (in Hungarian).
        Tipografia Tîrgu Mureș, Targu Mureș, Romania1980
        • Benedek HE.
        Adalékok egy moldvai csángó falu népi növényismeretéhez (Ethnobotanical data of a Csángó’s village in Moldova) (in Hungarian).
        Kriza János Néprajz Társ Évk. 1997; 5: 150-168
        • Kóczián G.
        A hagyományos parasztgazdálkodás termesztett, a gyűjtögető gazdálkodás vad növényfajainak etnobotanikai értékelése [Ethnobotanical Evaluation of Wild and Cultivated Plants Used in Traditional Farms] (in Hungarian).
        Nagyatádi Kulturális és Sport Központ, Nagyatád, Hungary2014
        • Gaspar N
        • Godinho J
        • Vasconcelos T
        • et al.
        Ethnobotany in the center of Portugal (Santarem).
        Pr Phyt Soc. 2002; 47: 271-284
        • Guarrera PM
        • Lucia LM.
        Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy.
        J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2007; 3: 23
        • Pieroni A
        • Gray C.
        Herbal and food folk medicines of the Russlanddeutschen living in Kunzelsau/Talacker, South-Western Germany.
        Phytother Res. 2008; 22: 889-901
        • Cavero RY
        • Akerreta S
        • Calvo MI.
        Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula).
        J Ethnopharmacol. 2011; 133: 138-146
        • Rexhepi B
        • Mustafa B
        • Hajdari A
        • et al.
        Traditional medicinal plant knowledge among Albanians, Macedonians, and Gorani in the Sharr Mountains (Republic of Macedonia).
        Genet Resour Crop Evol. 2013; 60: 2055-2080
        • Soukand R
        • Hrynevich Y
        • Vasilyeva I
        • et al.
        Multi-functionality of the few: current and past uses of wild plants for food and healing in Liuban region, Belarus.
        J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2017; 13: 10
        • Turcsányi I
        A népi gyógyászat Kunszentmártonban [Ethnomedicine in Kunszentmárton] (in Hungarian).
        Tiszazugi Füzetek, Kunszentmárton-Szolnok, Hungary1973
        • Penavin O
        Népi gyógyászat Kórógyon [Ethnomedicine in Korođ] (in Hungarian).
        Hungarológiai Intézet Tudományos Közleményei. 1975; 7: 132-140
        • Oláh A.
        Fűbe-fába orvosság!” Békés megyei népi orvoslás [Ethnomedicine in Békés County] (in Hungarian).
        Békés Megyei Tanács Szakbizottságának kiadása, Békéscsaba, Hungary1983
        • Gál G.
        Népi orvoslás a Barkó vidéken [Ethnomedicine in Barkó’s Region] (in Hungarian).
        Fejezetek a Bükk-vidék népi kultúrájából, Eger-Miskolc, Hungary1988: 81-97
        • Varró A
        Népi gyógyászat Kajárpecéren [Ethnomedicine in Kajárpecér] (in Hungarian).
        Komárom megyei néprajzi füzetek, Tatabánya, Hungary1988
        • Kótyuk E.
        A népi gyógyítás hagyományai egy kárpátaljai magyar faluban [Ethnomedicinal Traditions in a Hungarian Village in the Carpathians] (in Hungarian).
        Európai Folklór Intézet-Osiris Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary2000
        • Gonzalez JA
        • Ramon Vallejo J
        The scorpion in Spanish folk medicine: A review of traditional remedies for stings and its use as a therapeutic resource.
        J Ethnopharmacol. 2013; 146: 62-74
        • Piluzza G
        • Virdis S
        • Serralutzu F
        • et al.
        Uses of plants, animal and mineral substances in Mediterranean ethnoveterinary practices for the care of small ruminants.
        J Ethnopharmacol. 2015; 168: 87-99
        • Amezcua M.
        Traditional Iberian folk medicine in dermatology.
        Clin Dermatol. 1999; 17: 33-40
      9. Wdowiak L, Kaczmarek J. Psychological aspect in treating skin diseases in Polish ethnomedicine. Biopsychosocial Asp Health Dis. 2009,1: 30.

        • Oláh A.
        A dobozi Petőfi termelőszövetkezet tagjainak egészségügyi kultúrája és ellátottsága [Health care and medical service of the members of Petőfi collective farm in Doboz] (in Hungarian).
        Néprajzi Értesítő. 1956; : 38
        • Heinrich M.
        Ethnobotany and its role in drug development.
        Phytother Res. 2000; 14: 479-488
        • McClatchey WC
        • Mahady GB
        • Bennett BC
        • et al.
        Ethnobotany as a pharmacological research tool and recent developments in CNS-active natural products from ethnobotanical sources.
        Pharmacol Ther. 2009; 123: 239-254