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Side effects of gel nail polish: a systematic review

      Abstract

      Gel nail polish (GNP) has recently gained worldwide popularity. We have conducted a comprehensive summary of the complications of GNP through a literature search using PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases to identify eligible papers. Complications were divided into mechanical and traumatic nail disorders, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), and UV-induced lesions. A total of 12 contributions were included, identifying 88 patients, all of whom were women. Six of the reports described ACD (62 cases, 70,5%), three concerned mechanical nail damage (23 cases, 26,1%), and three reported UV-induced skin lesions (3 cases, 3,4%). ACD developed an average of 30 months after GNP initiation. The most frequent culprit allergens were: 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Pterygium inversum unguis was the most frequent mechanical lesion (n=17). Squamous cell carcinoma was reported in 3 cases. The delay between UV exposure and the diagnosis of SCC ranged from 11 to 15 years. Scant literature and a lack of education among consumers and beauticians has lead to the uncontrolled use of GNP. The principle of managing nail cosmetic problems is prevention through education. There is a need for understanding the processes involved and the associated complications to facilitate appropriate treatment and safe use.

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