Advertisement

Diversity in dermatology: International medical graduates and their role in the diversity of a specialty

      Abstract

      A diverse medical workforce improves patient care. Dermatology is the second-least diverse medical specialty in the United States, and many recent publications have discussed the different reasons and possible solutions to improve this disparity. A quarter of physicians in the United States are international medical graduates, which directly affects the cultural diversity in health care. Dermatology has the lowest percentage of international medical graduates in its active physician workforce. Among other measures, the inclusion of more international medical graduates in residency programs can help improve the diversity in this specialty and alleviate any disparities in dermatological care delivery in underserved communities.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Clinics in Dermatology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Pandya AG
        • Alexis AF
        • Berger TG
        • et al.
        Increasing racial and ethnic diversity in dermatology: a call to action.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016; 74: 584-587
        • Pritchett EN
        • Pandya AG
        • Ferguson NN
        • et al.
        Diversity in dermatology: roadmap for improvement.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018; 79: 337-341
        • Akhiyat S
        • Cardwell L
        • Sokumbi O.
        Why dermatology is the second least diverse specialty in medicine: how did we get here?.
        Clin Dermatol. 2020; 38: 310-315
        • Costello CM
        • Harvey JA
        • Besch-Stokes JG
        • et al.
        The role of race and ethnicity in the dermatology applicant match process.
        J Natl Med Assoc. 2021; (S0027-9684(21)00126-7)
        • Ranasinghe PD.
        International medical graduates in the US physician workforce.
        J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2015; 115: 236-241
        • Ahmed AA
        • Hwang WT
        • Thomas Jr, CR
        • et al.
        International medical graduates in the US physician workforce and graduate medical education: current and historical trends.
        J Grad Med Educ. 2018; 10: 214-218
        • Polsky D
        • Kletke PR
        • Wozniak GD
        • et al.
        Initial practice locations of international medical graduates.
        Health Serv Res. 2002; 37: 907-928
        • Khullar D
        • Blumenthal DM
        • Olenski AR
        • et al.
        U.S. immigration policy and American medical research: the scientific contributions of foreign medical graduates.
        Ann Intern Med. 2017; 167: 584-586
        • Majeed MH
        • Ali AA
        • Saeed F.
        International medical graduates: from brain drain to potential gain.
        Int J Med Educ. 2017; 8: 37-38
        • Tsugawa Y
        • Jena AB
        • Orav EJ
        • et al.
        Quality of care delivered by general internists in US hospitals who graduated from foreign versus US medical schools: observational study.
        BMJ. 2017; 356: j273
        • Norcini JJ
        • Boulet JR
        • Dauphinee WD
        • et al.
        Evaluating the quality of care provided by graduates of international medical schools.
        Health Aff (Millwood). 2010; 29: 1461-1468
        • Garibaldi RA
        • Subhiyah R
        • Moore ME
        • et al.
        The in-training examination in internal medicine: an analysis of resident performance over time.
        Ann Intern Med. 2002; 137: 505-510
        • Alam A
        • Matelski JJ
        • Goldberg HR
        • et al.
        The characteristics of international medical graduates who have been disciplined by professional regulatory colleges in Canada: a retrospective cohort study.
        Acad Med. 2017; 92: 244-249
        • Coombs AA
        • King RK.
        Workplace discrimination: experiences of practicing physicians.
        J Natl Med Assoc. 2005; 97: 467-477
        • Ramos-Rodriguez AJ
        • Timerman D
        • Kyriacou MI
        • et al.
        A strategic evidence-based framework for international medical graduates (IMGs) applying to dermatology residence in the United States: a literature review.
        Dermatol Online J. 2019; 25 (13030/qt0sh2s8h1)
        • Guo L
        • Nambudiri V
        15352 representation of international medical graduates among dermatology residents: a 5-year analysis.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020; 83: AB148
        • Pahalyants V
        • Murphy W
        • Harris ST
        • et al.
        Internationally educated dermatologists in the active Medicare workforce [e-pub ahead of print].
        Int J Dermatol. 2021; (Accessed September 15, 2021)https://doi.org/10.1111/ijd.15715
        • Cooper LA
        • Roter DL
        • Johnson RL
        • et al.
        Patient-centered communication, ratings of care, and concordance of patient and physician race.
        Ann Intern Med. 2003; 139: 907-915
        • Norcini JJ
        • van Zanten M
        • Boulet JR.
        The contribution of international medical graduates to diversity in the U.S. physician workforce: graduate medical education.
        J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2008; 19: 493-499
        • Arnhart Katie
        • Pei Xiaomei
        • Young Aaron
        The rise of female international medical graduates and their contribution to physician supply in the United States.
        J Med Regul. 2017; 103: 5-11
        • Duckworth AL
        • Peterson C
        • Matthews MD
        • et al.
        Grit: perseverance and passion for long-term goals.
        J Pers Soc Psychol. 2007; 92: 1087-1101
        • Lupyan G
        • Ward EJ.
        Language can boost otherwise unseen objects into visual awareness.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110: 14196-14201
      1. Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates. Available at: https://www.ecfmg.org/. Accessed October 21, 2021.

        • Riley JD
        • Hannis M
        • Rice KG.
        Are international medical graduates a factor in residency program selection? A survey of fourth-year medical students.
        Acad Med. 1996; 71: 381-386
        • Zaidi Z
        • Dewan M
        • Norcini J.
        International medical graduates: promoting equity and belonging.
        Acad Med. 2020; 95: S82-S87
        • Jain P
        • Krieger JL.
        Moving beyond the language barrier: the communication strategies used by international medical graduates in intercultural medical encounters.
        Patient Educ Couns. 2011; 84: 98-104