Research Article| Volume 40, ISSUE 5, P414-419, September 2022

The history of annular lesions of skin diseases


      Annular skin eruptions encompass a wide array of different cutaneous afflictions that are a common occurrence in the practice of dermatology. Annular lesions present as oval or circular shaped patches and plaques with central clearing. The term annular has been employed in the vernacular since the 16th century; yet, it does not seem to have appearedin the dermatologic literature until the early 20th century. Such lesions are described and even illustrated but with different phraseology. We describe the history of annular terminology and its use in various afflictions of the skin.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Clinics in Dermatology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


      1. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Annular. Available at: Accessed June 2020.

        • Leider M
        • Rosenblum M.
        A Dictionary of Dermatological Words, Terms and Phrases.
        McGraw-Hill, New York1968: 43-44
        • Fitzpatrick TB
        • Eisen AZ
        • Wolff K
        • et al.
        Dermatology in General Medicine.
        3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York1987: 2641
        • Stelwagon HW.
        Essentials of Diseases of the Skin including Syphilis.
        8th ed. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia1921: 314
        • Radcliffe-Crocker H
        Granuloma annulare.
        Br J Dermatol. 1902; 14: 1-9
        • Oriel JD.
        The Scars of Venus: A History of Venereology.
        Springer-Verlag, London1994: 248
      2. The papular syphilide.
        in: Fox GH The papular syphilide. In: Fox GH, ed. Photographic Illustrations of Cutaneous Syphilis. E.B Treat, New York1881: 60-64
        • Pusey WA
        George Henry Fox, M.D. 1846-1937.
        Arch Derm Syphilol. 1937; 36: 361-364
        • Atkinson IE.
        Syphiloderma papulosum circinatum.
        J Cutan and Vener Dis. 1883; 1: 15-20
        • Rainforth SI.
        The Stereoscopic Skin Clinic.
        Medical Art Publishing Company, New York1910
      3. Thomas Colcott Fox, MB, FRCP.
        Br Med J. 1916; 1: 636
        • Dermatological Society of London
        Society intelligence.
        Br J Dermatol. 1895; 7: 91-92
        • Jayakumar KL
        • Lipoff JB
        Henry Radcliffe Crocker: from the elephant man to the textbook.
        JAMA Dermatol. 2017; 153: 674
        • Fox TC.
        Erythema gyratum perstans.
        in: Morris M Unna PG Leloir H-CC Duhring LA International Atlas of Rare Skin Diseases. J & A Churchill Ltd, London1891: 1-3
      4. Grover William Wende (1867-1926).
        Arch Derm Syphilol. 1926; 13: NP-404
        • Wende GW.
        Erythema figuratum perstans.
        JAMA. 1908; 51: 1936-1939
        • Civatte J
        Jean Darier: a memoir.
        Am J Dermatopathol. 1979; 1: 57-60
        • Darier J.
        De l'erytheme annulaire centrifuge.
        Ann Dermatol Syphilol. 1916; 6: 57-76
        • Bressler GS
        • Jones Jr, RE
        Erythema annulare centrifugum.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1981; 4: 597-602
        • Fox GH.
        Photographic Illustrations of Skin Diseases.
        E.B. Treat, New York1883
        • Butler J.
        Erythema annulare centrifugum.
        Arch Dermatol Syphilol. 1932; 25: 111-119
        • Antonovych TT.
        Historical perspective.
        in: Antonovych TT Pathology of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. American Registry of Pathology, Washington DC1995: 7-10
        • Cazenave A.
        Formes du lupus et son traitement.
        La Lancette Francaise. 1850; 23: 354
        • Sontheimer RD
        • Thomas JR
        • Gilliam JN.
        Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus: a cutaneous marker for a distinct lupus erythematosus subset.
        Arch Dermatol. 1979; 115: 1409-1415
        • James DG.
        Centenary commemoration of sarcoidosis and of Jonathan Hutchinson.
        Br Med J. 1969; 2: 109-110
        • Hutchinson J.
        On lupus and its treatment.
        Br Med J. 1880; 1: 650-652
        • Felten R
        • Lipsker D
        • Sibilia J
        • et al.
        The history of lupus throughout the ages [e-pub ahead of print].
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022; (Accessed June 11, 2021)
        • Wilson E.
        On Ringworm: Its Causes Pathology and Treatment.
        John Churchill, London1847: 102
        • Strauss MJ.
        Erasmus Wilson on ringworm.
        Yale J Biol Med. 1946; 19: 141-147
      5. Historical introduction.
        in: Erichsen JE Historical introduction. In: Erichsen JE, ed. A Practical Treatise on the Diseases of the Scalp. Churchill, London1842: xxxiii-xxxxiv
        • Donald GF.
        The history, clinical features, and treatment of tinea capitis due to trighophyton tonsurans and trichophyton violaceum.
        Aust J Dermatol. 1959; 5: 90-102
        • Hutchinson J.
        Anomalous diseases of skin and fingers: case of livid papillary psoriasis?.
        Illustrations of Clinical Surgery. J and A Churchill, London1877: 42-43
        • Hutchinson J.
        On eruptions which occur in connection with gout: cases of Mortimer's malady (lupus vulgaris multiplex non-ulcerans and non-serpiginosus).
        Arch Surg (London). 1898; 9: 307-315
      6. Dr IB Sneddon CBE MD FRCP.
        Br J Dermatol. 1988; 118: 721-723
        • Black MM
        Darrell Sheldon Wilkinson MD, FRCP, FRSM.
        Br J Dermatol. 2010; 162: 231-233
        • Sneddon IB
        • Wilkinson DS.
        Subcorneal pustular dermatosis.
        Br J Dermatol. 1956; 68: 385-394