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Rosacea pathogenesis, common triggers, and dietary role: The cause, the trigger, and the positive effects of different foods

      Abstract

      Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory cutaneous disorder, primarily manifesting on the cheeks, nose, chin, and forehead with a classic relapsing-remitting course that affects mostly fair skin types (Fitzpatrick I and II). The pathogenesis remains unclear, but the complex interplay between environmental and genetic factors may augment the innate immune response and neurovascular dysregulation. Different nutrients may play a role in the pathogenesis of rosacea. Many dietary triggers, including hot beverages, alcohol, spicy foods, caffeine, vanilla, cinnamon, niacin, marinated meats, and dairy products, have been postulated for this disease; however, there is a lack of well-designed and controlled studies evaluating the causal relationship between rosacea and dietary factors. We have explored the available evidence and hypotheses based on trigger-food categories of rosacea, the role of the skin-gut microbiome axis, and potentially benefiting dietary factors such as probiotics, prebiotics, and high-fiber diets.
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