Advertisement

The cultural and philosophical concepts of cosmetics in beauty and art through the medical history of mankind

      The word cosmetic, kosmétikos, means “skilled in adornment.” Kosmein means “arrange,” or “adorn.” Kosmos means “order:” It also means “to make for beauty, especially of the complextion, or beautifying,”; it also means “done or made for the sake of appearance,” or “correcting defects especially of the face.” More than that it is “decorative,” or “ornamental.”

      Merriam-Webster’s ninth new collegiate dictionary. Spring field, MA: Merriam-Webster, 1991; 294.

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Clinics in Dermatology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

      1. Merriam-Webster’s ninth new collegiate dictionary. Spring field, MA: Merriam-Webster, 1991; 294.

        • Oumeish Y.O
        Traditional Arabic medicine in dermatology.
        Clin Dermatol. 1999; 17: 15
        • Ebling F.J.G
        The role of colour in cosmetics.
        in: Counsell J.N Natural colours for food and other uses. Applied Sciences Publishers, London1981: 55-81
        • Reese V
        Dermatology in the cinema.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995; 33: 1030-1034
      2. Oumeish YO. The standards and dimensions of beauty. The Second International Conference for Medical and Surgical Dermatology and the Laser. Amman, Jordan, 58.

        • Iliffe A.H
        Attractive woman.
        Br J Psychol. 1996; 51: 267-273
      3. Gibran K. The prophet. Hila, V, editor New York: Alfred A. Krope, 1996:66–8.

        • Turek J
        Biometrics.
        Intersec, the Journal of International Security. 1999; 9: 144
      4. Kalb C. Our question to be perfect. Newsweek. 1999; August 16:36.

        • Antonio L
        Commentary. Skin aging and photoaging.
        Clin Dermatol. 1996; 14: 133
      5. Unna PG. Die Histopathologie der Hautkran Kheiten. In: Lehrbuch der speziellen pathologischen Anatomie. Berlin: Hirschwald, 1894.

      6. Kligman LH, Kligman AM. Photoaging. In: Fitzpatrick TB, Eisen A, Wolf K, et al., editors. Dermatology in general medicine third ed. New York; McGrand-Hill International Books, 1986:1470–5.

        • Kligman L.H
        • Kligman A.M
        The nature of photoaging.
        Photodermatol. 1986; 3: 215-277
        • Oumeish Y.O
        Traditional arabic medicine in dermatology.
        Clin Dermatol. 1999; 17: 13-20
        • Pathak A.M
        Sunscreens and their use in the preventive treatment of sunlight-induced skin damage.
        J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1987; 13: 739-750
        • Lever L
        • Komar P
        • Marks P
        Topical retinoic acid for treatment of solar damage.
        Br J Dermatol. 1990; 122: 91-98
      7. Parish LC, Crissey JT. Cosmetics: A historical review in cosmetic dermatology. Clin Dermatol 1988;3:1–4.

        • Hollander E
        Askulap und Venus, Eine Kultur-und sitenges-chichte in spiegel des Arztes. Propylen Verlas, Berlin1928
        • Stuttgen G
        Historical observations, skin aging and photoaging.
        Clin Dermatol. 1996; 14: 136
      8. The changing face of Europe. Schering dermatology conference calender, Eleventh Regional Conference of Dermatology. Singapore, May 21–24, 1994:1–8.

      9. Valli Herppan-Cohen. Travels. Los Angelis Times 1999; November 5 E2–3.

      10. Cheryl M, Suzanne M. Scent of a work out. Fittness magazine. 1999; December:36–9.

      11. Fogiel M. Selecting the hair style that’s most becoming to you. How to be beautiful. Research and Educational Association editor. New Jersey, 1996:1–3.

      12. Avicenna. Le Livre de science. Achena M, Massé H, translators. Paris: Soci Paris, 1955–8.

        • Oumeish Y.O
        Climatotherapy at the Dead Sea in Jordan.
        Clin Dermatol. 1996; 14: 659-664
        • Abels D
        • Even-Paz Z
        • Efran D
        Bioclimatology at the Dead Sea in Israel.
        Clin Dermatol. 1996; 14: 653-658
      13. Dawber RPR, Ebling FJG, Wojnarowska FT. Disorders of hair: Cosmetic hair colouring. Vegetable dyes. In: Rook/Wilkinson/Ebling textbook of dermatology, Vol. IV. New York: Blackwell, scientific publications: 1992:629.

        • Natow A.J
        Henna.
        Cutis. 1986; 38: 21-25
      14. Avicenna. The canon of medicine. Beirut, Lebanon: Izeldeen, 1993:I;510–11.

      15. Medicine of the Prophet. Immam Shams Ibn Kaim Al-Jouzieh Beirut, Lebanon: Izeldeen, 1991:100–1.

        • Rook A.J
        • Thomas P.J.B
        Social and medical aspects of tattooing.
        Practitioner. 1952; 169: 60-66
        • Birol
        • Klein W.P
        Unusual complication of mercurial (cinnabar) tattoo.
        Arch Dermatol. 1967; 96: 165-167
        • Taaffe A
        • Knight A
        • Marks R
        Lichenoid tattoo hypersensitivity.
        Br Med J. 1978; 1: 616-618
        • Olsen E.A
        Continuing medical education. Methods of hair removal.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999; 40: 146-147
        • Ridley C.M
        A critical evaluation of the procedures available for the treatment of hirsutism.
        Br J Dermatol. 1969; 81: 146-153
        • Richards R.N
        • Uy M
        • Meharg G
        Temporary hair removal in patients with hirsutism.
        Cutis. 1990; 45: 199-220
        • Rentoul J.R
        • Aitken A.B
        The cosmetic treatment of hirsutism.
        Practitioner. 1980; 24: 1171-1184
        • Wright R.C
        Traumatic folliculitis of the legs.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992; 27: 771-772
        • Wagner R.F
        • Tomich J.M
        • Ghande D.J
        Electrolysis and other thermolysis for permanent hair removal.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1985; 12: 441-449
        • Richards R.N
        • McKenzie M.A
        • Meharrg G.E
        Electroepilation (electrolysis) in hirsutism.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986; 15: 693-697
        • Wheelard R.G
        Laser assisted hair removal.
        Dermatol Clin. 1997; 15: 459-477
        • Finkel B
        • Eliézri Y.D
        • Waldman A
        • Slatkine M
        Pulsed alexandrite laser technology for noninvasive hair removal.
        J Clin Laser Med Surg. 1997; 15: 225-229
        • Dierich C.G
        • Grossman M.C
        • Farinelli W.A
        • Anderson R.R
        Permanent hair removal by normal-mode ruby laser.
        Arch Dermatol. 1998; 134: 837-842